https://wiktenauer.com/wiki/Paulus_Kal Paulus Kal was a 15th century German fencing master. He wrote that he studied martial arts under Hans Stettner von Mörnsheim, and was an initiate of the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer. He was also attached as Schirrmeister to three different courts in his career, serving in various military capacities including commanding men in at least three campaigns. Perhaps his most significant legacy is an honor role of masters which he styled the Fellowship of Liechtenauer (Geselschaft Liechtenauers). While many of these masters remain unknown, the several wrote treatises of their own and Kal's list stands as an independent confirmation of their connection to the grand master. Kal's treatise is also of interest in that it represents the oldest attempt to illustrate portions of Liechtenauer's Recital (Zettel).
Little is known of Kal's early life, but from 1440 to ca. 1449 he served Ludwig IV "the Gentle" of Wittelsbach, Count Palatine of the Rhine. In 1448, while in the Elector's service he participated in the defense Nuremberg, commanding a unit of wheel cannons below the gates. The Nuremberg Council notes from 17 March 1449 mention that he had broken the peace of the city at that time by drawing his weapons.
Kal entered the service of Ludwig IX "the Rich" of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut, on 29 September 1450. In 1461, he is mentioned commanding a unit of 12 marksmen. From 1465 to 1475, he seems to have also maintained a secondary occupation as a toll collector in Dingolfing. In November 1468, he participated in military actions on the castle Saldenburg, which was successfully taken on 4 December. Kal is listed as a guest at the wedding of Ludwig's son Georg, and continued in the duke's service until his death on 18 January 1479. Paulus Kal created two manuscripts of his treatise while in the service of Ludwig IX, an uncaptioned version as well as a more elaborate presentation copy including brief explanations in German for most devices (including fragments of Liechtenauer's Recital).
On 12 February 1480, Paulus Kal entered the service of Sigismund of the House of Hapsburg, Archduke of Austria and Tyrol. Kal acted as one of the archduke's witnesses at a number of interrogations held on 17 October 1485 in Innsbruck, related to the witch trials being conducted by Heinrich Kramer at that time. This is the final time that Kal's name has been located in historical records. Several copies of Kal's treatise were created during the 1480s and 90s, but the only one which shows any probability of Kal's personal involvement is the extensive MS KK5126.